Wateruse efficiency is often used in the agricultural sector to measure the efficiency of. We conducted fouryear field studies 20112014 to investigate yield, crop evapotranspiration etc, and water use efficiency wue in one conventional n58l and one dt hybrid n59bdt under three water regimes i100, i75, and i50, where the. Water use efficiency and water productivity ragab ragab wp3 w4c this note is based on a number of discussions that took place in bari and bangalore and as the w4c project carries in its title the term water use efficiency and wp3 is dedicated to water use efficiency, it is timely that we have a clear idea about the meaning of this term. Progress on water use efficiency global baseline for sdg 6 indicator 6.
Fao has been conducting various activities to improve the water use efficiency in its. Water use efficiency wue at national level is the sum of the efficiencies in the major economic sectors weighted according to the proportion of water withdrawn by each sector over the total withdrawals. Water use efficiency is an important index in climate change research and hydrological studies, as it reflects how the carbon and water cycles are coupled and is an effective integral trait for assessing the responses of vegetated ecosystems to climate change. Consumptive use conversion of water into water vapour, comprising 1. The application of faos masscote approach was one of the activities of this output. Water use efficiency of potato solanum tuberosum l. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water. The term irrigation efficiency expresses the performance of a complete irrigation system or components of the system. Adoption of more efficient water use techniques will. Measurement, current situation and trends bharat sharma1, david molden2 and simon cook3 abstract agriculture is the largest consumer of water and total evapotranspiration from global agricultural land could double in next 50 years if trends in food consumption and current practices of production continue. In semiarid regions where water resources are scarce, irrigation water use efficiency is an important issue.
Abstract water use efficiency or transpiration efficiency describes the intrinsic tradeoff between carbon fixation and water loss that occurs in dryland plants because water. Improvements in wateruse efficiency are key for water and food security and to achieve. Rain falls mainly during the winter months so that crops must often rely on stored soil moisture when they are growing most rapidly. To obtain a du for an irrigation system, the outputs andor pressures from a. Irrigation methods, crop water requirements, crop production and crop water productivity data are elaborated are discussed. Pdf wateruse efficiency and productivity improvements towards a. Guide to home water efficiency department of energy.
Field guide to improve water use efficiency in smallscale. All the water used for any purpose goes to one or more of the following categories. Land use, land use change and forestry lulucf land use and land use change adevelop and enforce policies that regulate change from one land use to another especially the clearance. Figure 312 water use efficiency liter qr gdp and water use productivity gdp per liter of water used in industry 2002 2014 constant prices of 2004 31 figure 3 water use in the commercial sector million m3 2002 2014 32 figure 314 growth rate of water use in commercial sector and gdp in commercial. Ecology frequently must estimate or determine irrigation efficiency, when issuing new water rights for irrigation purpose of use, when conducting tentative determinations of existing irrigation water rights, when evaluating trust water applications, when determining whether water is being wasted, in the context of adjudications, and in other. Member countries through normative work on issues such as crop water. Tarabey lebanese agricultural research institute, dept. Once we know the du, corrective measures can be taken to improve water use efficiency, and we can use it to help schedule irrigations. It characterizes, in a specific process, how effective is the use of water. Effects of three different irrigation methods drip, poroustube and furrow irrigations on yield and water use efficiency in sugar beet beta vulgaris l. The indicator on water use efficiency addresses the economic component of target 6. Average applied irrigation ranged from 2 to 347 mm across seasons.
Crop coefficient, water requirements, yield and water use efficiency of sugarcane growth in brazil. Direct evaporation in the air from the spray, from the soil surface, and from plant leaves that intercept spray water. The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. Whereas economic efficiency of irrigation water use, which has technical and allocative components, refers to the economic benefits and costs of water use. Albrizio mediterranean agronomic institute of bari, ciheamiamb, italy university of bari, faculty of agriculture, italy summary. The santa clara valley water district handbook for. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Fao irrigation water management, training manual 4. Status of water use efficiency of main crops food and agriculture. Pdf water use efficiency and water productivity in the.
Water use efficiency in the production of food must not only take into account quantities and yields, but also the nutrients and dietary impacts. This will be achieved by applying an fao water tool, known as the. Below is a table summarizing the water savings benefits achieved from this grant program. Tradeoffs between water productivity and nutrient use efficiency need to be. Water productivity of irrigated crops ranged from 8. The drip and poroustube irrigations had more frequency and fewer amount as compared with the furrow irrigation. To provide a better understanding of conditions which reduce efficiency, the discussion will cover water losses associated with the various attachment options and configurations. Charlesedwards, school of australian environmental studies, griffith university, brisbane 4111, australia d. The infographic provides information about the importance of water and the growing need to produce more food with less water. Chapter 5 water efficiency in agriculture globally, agriculture is the largest user of water1 and also uses 85% of the water withdrawn in the mena region. Originally, crop physiologists defined water use efficiency as the amount of carbon assimilated and crop yield per unit of transpiration viets, 1962 and then later as the amount of biomass or marketable yield per unit of evapotranspiration. Enhancing water use efficiency requires actions at all levels, from agricultural practitioners to scheme managers, and up to the policymakers. It characterizes, in a specific process, how effective.
This work presents a summary on water resource availability in greece with an emphasis on irrigation water use since about 85% of water withdrawal is for agricultural purposes. Water use efficiency of surface drip irrigation versus an. Progress on wateruse efficiency food and agriculture. Pdf water use efficiency of tomatoes in greenhouses. Effects of different irrigation methods on yield and water. Water use efficiency an overview sciencedirect topics. The state of art of research and agricultural activity as related to water use efficiency wue and water productivity wp in greece is analyzed by means of. The impact of nutrientrich food choices on agricultural. Fao, the grains research and development corporation of australia, the river. Figure 4f2 illustrates the onfarm hydrologic cycle for irrigated lands, and table 4f1 provides definitions of several terms associated with irrigation. The fao water productivity openaccess portal wapor uses remote sensing technologies to monitor and report on agricultural water productivity over africa and the near east. Improving water use efficiency of annual crops in the.
Water use efficiency of surface drip irrigation versus an alternative subsurface drip irrigation method j. Whole system productivity indicator wspi is the water. Republic of yemen ministry of water and environment. Effects of deficit irrigation on yield and water use. Irrigation water management soil water plant relationships effective and efficient irrigation begins with a basic understanding of the relationships among soil, water, and plants. Statement by fao on water and investment the agricultural sector. Increase in forest wateruse efficiency as atmospheric. Review on estimation of crop water requirement, irrigation. Estimating the water use efficiency of spring barley using crop models volume 156 themed issue e.
Crop coefficient, water requirements, yield and water use. This test will give you a number known as the distribution uniformity, or du. Therefore, based on water use efficiency values, it is recommended that potato bowren variety should be fertilized within 600 kg k 2 so 4 ha. Irrigated agriculture and water use efficiency in italy. Water use efficiency wue is defined as the ratio between the amount of water that is used for an intended purpose and the total amount of water supplied within a spatial domain of interest.
Nowadays on worldwide there is a water shortage, accordingly it is necessary to adopt water saving agriculture as a counter measure as well as efficient use of irrigation water is becoming increasingly important. Emerging practices from agricultural water management in africa and the. Field guide to improve water use efficiency in smalls cale agriculture the case of burkina faso, morocco and uganda. Irrigation efficiency is defined as the ratio between the amount of water used to meet the consumptive use requirement of crop plus that necessary to maintain a favourable salt balance in the crop root zone to the total volume of water diverted, stored or. Improving water use efficiency or enhancing agricultural water productivity is a. Through the regional initiative on water scarcity, fao is providing support and focus to efforts in confronting the fastwidening gap between availability and demand for fresh water resources. Agriculture water use efficiency cdfadwr through this competitive grant program, dwr and cdfa intend to demonstrate the potential multiple benefits of conveyance enhancements combined with onfarm agricultural water use efficiency improvements and greenhouse gas. Analysis of equations relating crop growth and water use shows that there are three ways in which the water use efficiency of dry matter production can be increased.
Sugarcane yield and water use efficiency based on evapotranspiration for rainfed conditions and four irrigation levels are show in table 4. Grain yield, evapotranspiration, and wateruse efficiency. If the water contains salt, more energy per unit of water must be expended by the. Food and agriculture organization of the united nations fao concerning the legal or development status of any. By financially assisting local agencies in implementing their water use efficiency projects and programs, this grant program helps to reduce the need for additional water supplies, reduce diversions, save energy, and improve water supply reliability. Regional training workshop on enhancing water use efficiency in. Zimbabwes national climate change response strategy. The objective of this guide book is to show practical measures to improve water use efficiency in smallscale agriculture based on case studies from burkina faso, morocco and uganda. The following will discuss the various options available for use with center pivot irrigation systems and their general performance requirements. Water use efficiency food and agriculture organization of the. We are grateful for the support provided by the food and agriculture organization of the united nations. Rance csiro division of forestry and forest products, cunningham laboratory.1633 557 162 79 971 905 1193 428 22 747 855 1432 79 1533 714 101 465 1453 437 263 937 1288 1500 530 670 748 253 1462 1380 1555 769 607 326 862 667 1527 880 227 1187 633 75 642 1354 872 745 549 25